MS. TURLINGTON BURNS: --but we have incredible partners who in Haiti, you know, we're training our fourth class of skilled birth attendants there in the Central Plateau. In Guatemala, there's an incredible program called Corazon del Agua, and we support them. Their first graduating class of a three-year—first midwifery accredited program. The second class is underway now. I mean, each of those providers will deliver 200 babies a year, potentially. The ripple effect of investing in a woman is just, you know, I see it daily.
I'm a third-year analyst in Investment Grade Finance (IGF) in the UK Financial Institutions team and I'll soon be starting a one-year rotation in our New York office. In London I work in a small team of four people, and we're responsible for helping our clients - organisations in the financial services industry - raise money by accessing debt capital markets.

Consider the guidance of a professional advisor. If thinking about saving for retirement overwhelms you, consider working with an advisor to help you set goals and make informed investment decisions. Seek recommendations from friends, or gather a group of friends together to interview potential advisors. Meeting with multiple advisors before making a decision will help ensure you find someone who is the right fit for your needs.
Most families have one person that is in charge of the family’s finances, we want to change that. Together you have worked hard to raise a family, own a home and build a life, making all the big decisions together, though life’s joys and challenges, securing a financial future is a partnership too. Talking about money can be difficult for a variety of reasons mostly because men and women approach money differently. Women have sharp intuition when it comes to money; and by 2020, they are expected to control $22 trillion in assets. Ninety-five percent of women will be their family's primary financial decision maker at some point in their lives. When it comes to investing we want to encourage couples to get involved in the money conversation before a life changing event occurs.

These factors, coupled with women’s lower average wages and greater longevity, go a long way toward explaining why men’s poverty rate in retirement is half the poverty rate of women. “My real concern is that the retirement-savings crisis is a gender crisis, and we are not talking about it that way,” says Sallie Krawcheck. “Women can save more and invest more. They have to find a way that works for them and just do it.”
When it comes to managing your money, planning for retirement or paying for a major expense, your needs are unique. That’s why we’ve developed a set of tools and insights tailored to the economic goals and concerns of women. Build your financial savvy and talk to your trusted advisor for customized advice, so you can be ready to make the right decisions for the future you want - and deserve.
Krawcheck, long known as the most powerful woman on Wall Street, was CEO of wealth management firm Merrill Lynch during its acquisition by Bank of America; she left in 2011. Ellevest is backed by $10 million in funding from some of the biggest names in the investment business, including Chicago-based research firm Morningstar and Mohamed El-Erian, chief economic adviser at Allianz.
MS. SPELLINGS: --moderator here. Melanne, the table could be turned on this easily and Melanne and I have worked together for many, many years on these issues with President Clinton, President Bush, President Obama, Michelle Obama, Laura Bush, and on and on and on. And I think that's, as I've listened to Christy and thought about the qualities that we try to engender as women leaders, patience, working with others, listening, being goal oriented, understanding it's for the long-haul, being touched by something personal as Christy was often related to children and women and vulnerable populations. I mean all of those things really are at our core beliefs—as women.
Textbooks and school supplies. Course materials could eat up a large chunk of your budget. The average estimated cost of books and supplies for in-state students living on campus at public four-year institutions in 2016-2017 was $1,250, according to the College Board. Also plan for purchases like notebooks, a laptop, a printer and a backpack, and read the do’s and don’ts of back-to-school shopping for money-saving tips.
Top priorities of retirees also seem to differ from those of non-retirees. The retirees’ top priorities include maintaining their standard of living (29 percent), followed by spending time with loved ones (27 percent) and maintaining their health (23 percent). Despite that nearly one in five non-retirees hope to make traveling the world their top retirement priority, only 5 percent of retirees have prioritized traveling.
Fidelity's mission is to inspire better futures and deliver better outcomes for the customers and businesses we serve. With assets under administration of $6.1 trillion, including managed assets of $2.2 trillion as of April 30, 2017, we focus on meeting the unique needs of a diverse set of customers: helping more than 26 million people invest their own life savings, 23,000 businesses manage employee benefit programs, as well as providing more than 12,500 financial advisory firms with investment and technology solutions to invest their own clients' money. Privately held for 70 years, Fidelity employs 45,000 associates who are focused on the long-term success of our customers. For more information about Fidelity Investments, visit https://www.fidelity.com/about.
There’s also a concept I think you should be familiar with. It’s called passive investing. The idea is that it’s smarter to invest across the entire market and then not pay attention to it, than it is to pick stocks or pay someone else to pick stocks. It’s easier and less expensive, and historically it’s been more successful. In fact, Warren Buffett made a $1 million wager that passive investing would beat hedge funds—and he was right. It’s why he advises his heirs to invest passively with their money.
"My biggest advice to women who want to save more money is to make more money," said financial expert Nicole Lapin, the winner of GOBankingRates.com's 2015 Best Money Expert competition. "When you stop looking at your financial life as something of deprivation and more of something as aspiration, that's when you actually feel comfortable of taking control of your own finances."
That’s why it’s important for women to invest in companies that support other women. One example? Pax Ellevate Global Women’s Index Fund (PXWEX). It’s a mutual fund with Sallie Krawcheck, the leader of women’s digital financial advisor Ellevest, serving as chair. Here’s the scoop: It rates companies based on how well they advance gender diversity—like how many women serve on the board or as executive managers—and puts your money towards the ones that come out on top. It’s based on global research that shows having more women at the helm can increase return and lower costs, says Blayney. As for the results? The fund outperformed the MSCI World Index for the three-year period ending September 30, 2017. 
Well, well, well. After being locked out of the financial world for centuries, women are now besting men when it comes to investing returns. Not only do women consistently earn higher returns than men (by 40 basis points on average), they were also able to add more to their account balances over time (12.4 percent compared to 11.6 percent ), according to a study by Fidelity.
But it may be more accurate to say that women are more risk-aware and less deluded about their financial competence. A study in 2001 by Brad Barber and Terrance Odean, academics in the field of behavioural finance, showed that women outperformed men in the market by one percentage point a year. The main reason, they argued, was that men were much more likely to be overconfident than women, and hence to carry out unprofitable trades.
Merrill Lynch Wealth Management makes available products and services offered by Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated (MLPF&S), a registered broker-dealer and Member Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC), and other subsidiaries of Bank of America Corporation (BofA Corp.). Insurance and annuity products are offered through Merrill Lynch Life Agency Inc., a licensed insurance agency and wholly owned subsidiary of BofA Corp.
Women need to master the art of investing, in order to stay financially independent and also to ensure that their goals are always in line with the family’s goals. So, is there an age where women should start looking at investments? Actually, there is no particular age to start saving and investing. The earlier you start the better it is. This holds true whether or not you’re a woman.
The Boston Consulting Group reported that between 2010 and 2015, private wealth held by women grew from $34 trillion to $51 trillion. Most of the private wealth that will change hands in the next 20 or 30 years will go into the hands of women. There are multiple reasons for this, reports The Economist, one of them being that participation in the labor market is increasing and women are being paid more. Another is that women are inheriting more money from their husbands or parents, who are more likely to treat sons and daughters equally than they have done historically.
- With some diversity programs some male bankers will wonder if you are a diversity hire or if you are actually good at what you do (will affect your staffings and responsibilities - a proxy for your professional development). That said, I've always encouraged women (and anyone for that matter) to get in any way you can (diversity program or not). I feel like IBD is relatively meritocratic and once you are in (no matter how you got in: diversity program, your parents are well connected, you just happen to be brilliant / hardworking), you have to make your own name off your own hard work
MS. SPELLINGS: And certainly as public policy leaders. So, I think the reason it's so important is because we're going nowhere fast if we leave this much human potential and talent on the table. We know the facts over and over and over. When you educate a woman you educate a family. When you spend a dollar on a woman 97 cents of it goes to her children and family and community, and on and on and on. So, it's a great business case and a great moral imperative I would say to do this work.
MS. TURLINGTON BURNS: Well, they go hand-in-hand. I mean, no matter where I've traveled in the world, you know, that when a woman not only has opportunity, is able to go to school for longer, there is a correlation between, you know, her sexual debut, first child, marriage, all of those things, which impact her freedom. I find that, and you see it, and I think it was in the first film that came up that when a woman has economic independence, she's more likely to put those funds towards her family. She'll be more likely to take care, and seek care earlier than she would otherwise, and so, you just see the thoughtfulness that goes into that. And without it it's a lot harder, you know, If you don't have decision-making power, if you don't have, you know, you're literally waiting for someone else to make a decision whether your life is worth saving. So, no one should be in that position, and I think to have more opportunities and more equality—obviously a woman is going to be better off, and you're going to see the impact in her family and in her community more than you would otherwise. 

MS. TURLINGTON BURNS: It's a huge problem, and it's going to get worse. We have done a series of films called "Giving Birth in America" where we look through state-by-state at maternal healthcare. And one of the first films that we did was in Montana and there, you know, we had a family, a Caucasian family, highly educated, lots of kids, but that lived far away, just lived in a large state in a rural part of the state, and so when an emergency happened they were far away. I mean the woman survived, but it was, it was almost as if you could be in Sub-Saharan Africa and have the same problem. If you have a post-partum hemorrhage, you could bleed to death in under two hours if you don't get to care. So, you can see some of the same challenges as you do anywhere. I think what's most important is really having many levels of trained health providers, so community health workers, doulas, midwives, nurses, and doctors when necessary. Sometimes in the United States we have a tendency to over-medicalize birth, and so you might rush to a doctor who you don't necessarily need to see.
We spoke to women working across U.S. and European investment banks about their reaction to the figures. Some were resigned and described them as as a fact of life. Others agreed with Goldman - that the UK government isn't comparing like with like because a high proportion of women in finance occupy non-front office jobs like personal assistants. Others, however, were angry. And the reasons for their anger weren't always those discussed in sanitized accounts of women's grievances.

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Women need to master the art of investing, in order to stay financially independent and also to ensure that their goals are always in line with the family’s goals. So, is there an age where women should start looking at investments? Actually, there is no particular age to start saving and investing. The earlier you start the better it is. This holds true whether or not you’re a woman.
“Women have more power and earning potential than ever before. They now make up the majority of college graduates, represent nearly half the labor force and are the primary breadwinners in 42 percent of households,” says Bast, who cited The Shriver Report published in 2014. “Because they’re balancing careers and families with philanthropic pursuits and other projects, however, they often place others ahead of themselves.”
Financial editor and writer LouAnna Lofton, who studied the habits of Warren Buffett and compared them to research about gender and investing, has also found that women match their investments more closely to their goals and remain calmer during market turbulence. During a downturn, she says, female investment portfolios weather the storm far better than male ones.
MS. TURLINGTON BURNS: It's a huge problem, and it's going to get worse. We have done a series of films called "Giving Birth in America" where we look through state-by-state at maternal healthcare. And one of the first films that we did was in Montana and there, you know, we had a family, a Caucasian family, highly educated, lots of kids, but that lived far away, just lived in a large state in a rural part of the state, and so when an emergency happened they were far away. I mean the woman survived, but it was, it was almost as if you could be in Sub-Saharan Africa and have the same problem. If you have a post-partum hemorrhage, you could bleed to death in under two hours if you don't get to care. So, you can see some of the same challenges as you do anywhere. I think what's most important is really having many levels of trained health providers, so community health workers, doulas, midwives, nurses, and doctors when necessary. Sometimes in the United States we have a tendency to over-medicalize birth, and so you might rush to a doctor who you don't necessarily need to see.
Furthermore, women tend to be more cautious than men. They could be great assets for managing the less risky funds, as well as coming up with solid fixed-income investments. Although it is exciting to risk and watch the stock market volatility, asset management businesses need a “devil’s advocate” on the safer side, which is a great role for a woman to take. That is not to say that women can’t also make risky investments, but that is just the general consensus of psychological and sociological studies that I have read in the past.
It is a very demanding profession as one needs to devote all her time and attention to work alone leaving less time for family. So when people have kids and don't have someone back at home to rear them, it becomes a source of constant guilt and grief for everyone in the system. It becomes extremely competitive and political at the senior management levels as only a few people can be accommodated at that level. If one is not able to give her 100% to work for whatever reasons, it becomes difficult to compete. It finally boils to the candidate's personal rapport with the top management and conscious gender sensitivity on the part of the organisation to get over this hurdle. Most firms are found wanting on this factor though in recent times at least the established ones with a large work force are trying to be conscious about it.
MS. NELSON: To move things forward. So, I want to, I want to come to you Christine and the work of Bank of America because you've been long believers, obviously the partnership with Vital Voices is five years old, but you've been working for many years to, you know, really advance the development agenda, particularly women, but really to focus on partnership. Why does Bank of America believe that? I mean you are a huge corporation with lots of resources and entities around the world. Why is it important to partner with NGOs or governments?
Chelsea Middleton served 8 years as a crew chief on an Army Blackhawk helicopter before Allegiance hired her as a business development VP. She says she “had to grow up fast” and learned you “can’t allow yourself to feel intimidated” in the military. This experience, along with her self-discipline and strong motivation to succeed, come in handy when she talks with people about selling their businesses.
Chelsea Middleton served 8 years as a crew chief on an Army Blackhawk helicopter before Allegiance hired her as a business development VP. She says she “had to grow up fast” and learned you “can’t allow yourself to feel intimidated” in the military. This experience, along with her self-discipline and strong motivation to succeed, come in handy when she talks with people about selling their businesses.
MS. SARR: We bring in money in terms of funding as the United Nations, but we expect private sector to play its role. We expect public sector to play its role. In Africa, right now we have two countries that are leading in terms of affirmative procurement. In Kenya for instance 30% of public spend is earmarked for women, youth, and people with disabilities. South Africa also has preferential treatment for women. So, it's those critical partnerships that will allow us to have that critical mass of women that are economically empowered. And as a UN we, especially when women, we have a good understanding of what we call the gender machinery. We play a role of honest broker and that's how we put it together. It's a, it's a holistic comprehensive approach to be able to have impact.
In recent weeks, Knowledge@Wharton High School began noticing young women on the Wharton campus in Philadelphia, Pa., U.S., who were wearing hats and carrying bags inscribed with three simple words: Girls Who Invest. Since we happen to know lots of girls with this interest – thousands from around the world have participated in our annual KWHS Investment Competition for high school students – we decided to look further into this intriguing GWI sorority. Who were they? Why were they here? And were they truly stock market devotees?
2. In a team work, Woman are are worst performer, They are very good pal , sharing tiffin in canteen , going market along , but in case of official hiererchy, woman always want a man boss. I dont know what is the philosophy, but i seen, I felt- so I am writing. decision is in your hands. The result suffers due to poor co operation between the woman , and ultimately they blame to Glass Ceiling - that is not true.
MS. SPELLINGS: Absolutely. Well, to set the table, and probably a lot of people in this room know this, but you know, this city, and Raleigh not, is the worst in the United States of America for economic mobility. Raleigh is a tiny bit better, but not much. And so, the gaps are wide here in North Carolina. Here's the good news about that, is because likewise Wake County and Mecklenburg County are some of the highest educated counties in the nation with, you know, 50% higher education attainment with a statewide average in the low 40s. And so, the gaps are very, very wide, and I think, you know, people used to ask me this all the time, if I could wave a magic wand I would start with higher expectations of our children, all of our children, rural children, black children, brown children, poor children. You know? If half the school lunches served today in school cafeterias were tainted and people got sick we would be outraged, it would lead the news today here in this community or nationally. Half of the kids, poor kids getting out of high school nobody seems to, that doesn't matter that much because that's our expectation that it's okay that those children are left behind, to use an old-fashioned parlance that you might have heard before.
Men were also significantly more likely to take more risk than the platform’s algorithms advises for them. Interestingly, the moves didn’t come as a reaction to one particular headline but the markets themselves. “We see people in general move toward stocks when stocks have been up the last 7 days – and toward bonds when stocks have been down the past 7 days,” Swift says, acknowledging that this is the antithesis of what investors should be doing. The key is to try to understand who you are and how you’ll react to market moves. Making an appointment to check your portfolio once a month rather than when the spirit strikes may be the better idea. “The more active you are, the more inclined you are to participate.”
Imagine what could happen if more women became financially literate and spread that knowledge to their networks of other women. The possibility for increasing awareness is tremendous. Knowledge is most definitely power, so take this information and arm another woman in your life with it by sharing it via email or facebook. She may cringe initially, but in the long run, she will thank you.

MS. VERVEER: And what about networks? Because I think the other thing that women tend to lack in many ways, and we see this in the economics sphere among entrepreneurs, but I think we also see it more broadly, which is the need to be able to come together to meet other people in our sphere, others who can help take an element of what we're doing and enable us to forge ahead. So, more of a concentration on networks as well, that development, which again I think is what the program represents.


MS. SPELLINGS: Well, it was a super fun partnership that was a partnership between President Clinton, President Bush, President H.W. Bush, his center, and the LBJ Library in Austin. So, in that Arkansas/Texas region we have four Presidential, Presidential Libraries. And the idea was to help develop mid-career, civically-engaged leaders, using those four presidencies as case studies in leadership around decision making, around vision and planning, around building coalitions and whatnot, and you all ought to get on the website because it looks like there's some presidential leadership scholar candidates in here. President Bush and President Clinton stewarded this. We were able to raise funds to underwrite this because we need to develop leaders in this space so they can have the skills necessary, particularly in that mid-30s to, you know, mid-50s where you're out of graduate school if you've gone, but there, and you've got plenty of runway. So, how do you become, how do you lead at that level? Who better to do that than two presidents?
Most of our female clients are savvy women who have recently become responsible for managing money on their own, even though they are very astute, they realize that they do not have enough experience and confidence to make good financial decisions. Discussions focused on PE ratios and comparing the performance of different investments are not a priority, women want information about reaching their goals and future planning. 
Top priorities of retirees also seem to differ from those of non-retirees. The retirees’ top priorities include maintaining their standard of living (29 percent), followed by spending time with loved ones (27 percent) and maintaining their health (23 percent). Despite that nearly one in five non-retirees hope to make traveling the world their top retirement priority, only 5 percent of retirees have prioritized traveling.
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