I tell clients all the time that the most powerful weapon they have when it comes to investing is time. Time even beats out money—relatively speaking—if you have enough of it. Here’s an example: If you invested $10,000 at age twenty, and it grew at 5 percent (a pretty conservative rate, historically), you’d have $70,000 by the time you were sixty years old. The same investment would get you only about $43,000 if you started at thirty, and only $26,000 if you started at forty.

Best Advice: “A lot of young people are told to do what you’re passionate about. I say do something that challenges you. Don’t’ think about it too much. I tend to overthink about whether I really like something. Nothing is going to be this absolutely perfect fit. But as long as you’re learning, you’re going in the right direction. Get on a path and start learning as much as you can. When you’re not learning as much anymore, then it may be time to take a different path. I still have a lot to learn in the finance field. It would not do me justice to shy away right now because I’m just beginning to learn.”
Kimberly has been writing for ASecureLife.com since 2013. She is passionate about home security and enjoys learning about the advances in home security and the trend of moving toward more of a do-it-yourself method. She is also an advocate for online safety and strongly believes in the power of strong passwords and identity theft protection for living a more secure life. Since purchasing her first home in 2016, Kimberly has been implementing everything she has learned through her writing at ASecureLife.com in her personal life and home.
Coming in, I expected that my colleagues would be ultra-Type A, all work/no play, super serious folks given the nature of our work. But I’ve been pleasantly surprised by the great relationships and friendships I’ve developed at work and the camaraderie on our floor. I also expected the job to be extremely difficult in terms of the learning curve and was worried about my ability to handle it. It certainly is challenging, but with the support of my colleagues and mentors, I can really map out how much I’ve grown and learned over the past year. Everyone wants each other to succeed.

“TFS Scholarships was inspired by my own father’s experience as an inner-city high school principal, and grew out of the realization that more could be done to support students searching for college scholarships,” said Richard Sorensen, president of TFS Scholarships. “For more than 30 years, TFS has helped students achieve their higher education aspirations by making it easier to find essential funding for college.”


According to Veris Wealth Partners and Catalyst At Large, investment-advice firms, by last June $910m was invested with a gender-lens mandate across 22 publicly traded products, up from $100m and eight products in 2014. Private markets are hard to track, but according to Project Sage, which scans private-equity, venture and debt funds, $1.3bn had been raised by mid-2017 for investing with a gender lens.
These factors, coupled with women’s lower average wages and greater longevity, go a long way toward explaining why men’s poverty rate in retirement is half the poverty rate of women. “My real concern is that the retirement-savings crisis is a gender crisis, and we are not talking about it that way,” says Sallie Krawcheck. “Women can save more and invest more. They have to find a way that works for them and just do it.”
“The GWI program is one of the programs that the institute is implementing to make more female students aware of the careers in investment management,” Mary Scott, associate director of the Notre Dame Institute for Global Investing (NDIGI), said of the program. “As we broaden awareness of how intellectually stimulating and rewarding these types of careers can be, our hope is that more females will be interested in pursuing this industry.”

Take on less risk. Women are more likely to have their savings allocated in a more age-based allocation of investments than their male counterparts. In fact, looking specifically at Fidelity retirement savings accounts over the last three years, the percentage of women allocated appropriately for their age has increased by approximately 40 percent. Furthermore, fewer women have their savings fully invested in equities than men (which could represent too much risk and not enough diversification); and women are more likely to invest in target date funds, ensuring they are well diversified.
Saul M. Simon, a certified financial planner with Simon Financial Group in Edison, N.J., recommends women investors start investing at work in their 401k or 403b retirement plans. Every dollar that goes into these plans reduces current income taxes. In addition, the money grows tax-deferred, and in many cases the employer matches a portion of your investment.
As an alternative, open a savings account with a high annual percentage yield (APY), which means you’ll earn interest based on how much you deposit into your savings account. According to Bankrate.com, a good APY is between 3 and 5 percent. Make sure when that your direct deposit hits, you’re automating your payments into your savings account that way you won’t forget. However, make sure it is not easily accessible to make withdrawals from your savings. If you feel you don’t have the self-control to not withdraw from your savings, here’s a few reasons why you should keep your checking and savings account at different banks, according to LearnVest.
J.P. Morgan runs a recruitment programme called Winning Women, which gives female students the opportunity to discover the different areas of investment banking and learn about internships and the roles open to graduates. I recently participated in a networking event for the Winning Women programme, where I shared my experiences with students, and they also had the chance to meet female leaders from the bank and ask them questions about their careers.
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1. Get in the game. Women are participating in their employers’ retirement plans at the same rate as men. The problem is, they typically save less—an average of 6.9 percent of pay compared to 7.6 percent for men, according to 2013 a report by Aon Hewitt. Many also don’t contribute enough to take advantage of any company match. This makes it harder for women to build sufficient savings to fund retirement. In fact, according to the Aon Hewitt report, women have average plan balances that are significantly less than men’s, consistently across all salary ranges ($59,300 for women vs. $100,000 for men). The solution? Bast urges women to take full advantage of their retirement plans as soon as possible. “The key to building wealth is to start early, set aside as much as possible and always contribute at least as much to get any employer match that may be available.” 

These factors, coupled with women’s lower average wages and greater longevity, go a long way toward explaining why men’s poverty rate in retirement is half the poverty rate of women. “My real concern is that the retirement-savings crisis is a gender crisis, and we are not talking about it that way,” says Sallie Krawcheck. “Women can save more and invest more. They have to find a way that works for them and just do it.”


MS. SPELLINGS: What we're doing right is focusing on reading. Here in North Carolina there's been a major emphasis around early literacy. If people can't read and cipher at high levels very early then you're on a track for failure. So, you know, we're out of denial about that. A key part of that, certainly for the university, is making sure that our teachers are prepared to be effective in teaching reading, but teaching reading in disadvantaged communities, rural communities, urban communities, poor communities, etcetera, and I think we, and one of the things that I'm challenging myself to do since we run 14 teacher preparation programs, is understand how well we're doing that. You know, when the, when we have the reading results that we have in this state, which are not terribly encouraging, it tells me those well-intended, high-energy young people that are teaching in our schools don't have the best tools available or we'd have better results. So, that's, we have accountability for that in the university.
But it may be more accurate to say that women are more risk-aware and less deluded about their financial competence. A study in 2001 by Brad Barber and Terrance Odean, academics in the field of behavioural finance, showed that women outperformed men in the market by one percentage point a year. The main reason, they argued, was that men were much more likely to be overconfident than women, and hence to carry out unprofitable trades.
Define your goals: Get to the heart of what's important to you by thinking critically about investment goals. Sabbia mentioned preparing for personal retirement, saving for children's educational needs, or leaving a charitable gift for the next generation as potential goals. She also mentioned a key difference in how women invest. "While women care about performance, they also look for their investments to align with their values, goals and priorities," Sabbia said. "In fact, more than half of women investors are interested in or engaged in impact investing, generating financial returns along with social returns." Sabbia mentions that whether it's for your own family or a meaningful cause to help others, having clear goals that link to a clear strategy is key to success. And the ripple effect from that empowerment could extend far beyond your own backyard. Increased participation in investing could benefit communities overall. "If more women can actively take control of their financial future all along the way, it would not only benefit them, but also their families and our society overall,” said Maddy Dychtwald, co-founder and senior vice president of Age Wave.
Several studies have shown that companies with women in senior positions perform better than those without. Although this is correlation, not causation, to an investor that distinction should not matter. If diversity in an executive team is a proxy for good management across the company, a gender lens could be a useful way to reduce risk. If a business is tackling gender-related management issues, says Amy Clarke of Tribe Impact Capital, the chances are that it is dealing well with other risks and opportunities.
MS. SPELLINGS: Well, I think programs like this are a great place to start that are outside the government, outside formal networks, and I think obviously we need to take care of each other, to mentor each other, but not only to mentor each other, to sponsor each other, and that, you know, that distinction between, you know, being someone who is an advocate as a sponsor for that next generation of women. I think obviously higher levels of education, but we need to make sure that our women are paying attention to what the data tells us about where opportunity is. In this state, you know, STEM, whether it's the financial industry or the pharmaceutical industry, the biotech industry, those industries that are driving this state forward we want to make sure that our women and girls get part of that action and so that we're pursuing the disciplines that lead into those pathways.
“It’s a bit like learning to cook: I didn’t need to do it when I was growing up but I suddenly realised you didn’t have to be a brain surgeon to do investing,” he says. “I can understand it and understand how much risk to take. I moved from shares to shares and property to a portfolio that includes hedge funds, property funds and a small amount in commodities,” he says. 

Some of the other reasons behind some women investors' lack of confidence are complicated and probably deeply cultural, said experts. Parents even treat their sons and daughters differently when it comes to teaching them about money: They talk to their sons about money more than they talk to their daughters about it, and boys have earlier access to credit cards, according to a survey by Baltimore, Maryland-based T. Rowe Price.
At age 65 or older, 95 percent of men and women have married at least once; however, at these older ages, three times as many women (41%) as men (13%) are widowed. Women who live alone have the lowest median income of any type of household. In 2009, among those 65 and older, 44 percent of women were married, compared to 74 percent of men. As marital status does impact median income, particularly in those amongst the over 65 age group, we can see why retirement planning is especially important for women.

Women live, on average, five to seven years longer than men (depending on when they were born). Their money has to stretch longer, and if they are married, it is important to note that some of the biggest health care costs are incurred in the year prior to death, so if they survive their husbands, it is possible that their financial resources may be reduced by medical expenses. Married women tend to suffer significant losses in income when their spouse dies.
Of course, this means that women face greater expenses than men. At one end of the spectrum, they will need to meet their basic necessities for more years; this includes rent, utilities food and all the other little expenses that occur each month. At the other end of the spectrum are the big ticket items like healthcare; since the average woman will be elderly for longer than the average man, women are likely to face higher healthcare costs. These costs can include items such as insurance, medicine, hospitalization, surgery and long-term care.

MS. URZAIZ: Absolutely, not too far from here I had a meeting with Lowe's, and as you know it's a very large company with hundreds of stores throughout the U.S., and my brother and I finished up the meeting, the buyer loves it, and he's like I want 5,000 a month. Well, I have a problem. If you do the math it takes two weeks to make one, I cannot make 5,000 for you a month. But thanks to the supplier diversity team we convinced them to look to us with a different lens, which is why don't we do this, I can be online, I can do drop ship to all of your customers, and instead of having them in stock at your stores, which requires the 5,000 a month, why am I not just in display at your highest-selling stores of hammocks. And so, we convinced them and they carry us. But I think that the most important takeaway from this is actually how the United States is a leader. This was a policy set up with the U.S. government, supplier diversity, you have to buy 15% from women and minority-owned businesses, and this really is leading change, and helping women like myself with a small business to thrive and generate jobs back home where I'm from, and I think that's so important that the United States remain being this leader because us from other countries are followers, and policies like this really make an impact around the world.


The WII Summit seeks to bring together HBS alumni, industry professionals, and current MBAs for a day of open discussion about the current topics affecting the buy-side community. It is an unparalleled opportunity to meet and network with industry peers and senior women in an open forum and exchange perspectives on how to drive a successful career in investing. 

11. Statistics Canada, “Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 (693A), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (15), Labour Force Status (3), Age (13A) and Sex (3) for the Labour Force Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data,” 2016 Census (2017).
Thank you for your coverage on this important issue. There have been some recent studies that breakout women in investment roles vs. those in what HBS Professor Lietz deems to be the "pink ghetto" or IR/Marketing/Portfolio Operations. Based on data from Professor Lietz and Preqin, it appears that women represent between 0% and 10% of senior investment professional staff at any given PE firm. Preqin came out with a report showing that women represent 9% of investment professionals at the senior level, 15% at the mid-level, and 24% at the junior level. This means that 42% of women fall away at the mid-level which points to the crux of the issue described in your report: women aren't moving past the junior, subordinated role into mid-level "decision-making" roles. This is likely due to bias within the firms' MBA recruiting and promotion panels.

MS. VERVEER: As is always the case. We have such little time left, but there are so many exceptional women in this room who have been ambassadors, mentors for other exceptional women, many from other parts of the world who are the mentees in various areas. We touched very briefly on mentorship. You also mentioned sponsorship. But I've always noticed that when one comes into these arrangements of the mentee and the mentor each benefit--

Krawcheck, Hounsell and Judith Ward, senior financial planner and vice president at Baltimore-based fund company T. Rowe Price, suggested a few steps for women to take if they are looking to overcome their fear of investing and build confidence. Women need the higher returns that come from investing, because they live, on average, almost five years longer than men.

Not only are these items expensive, but political currents in many industrialized nations are reducing the contribution government makes toward these items. Decisions in corporate America are going the same way, as employers and insurance providers offer more expensive and less comprehensive coverage. All of these trends can result in higher expenses for the elderly, as they are forced to pay increased copayments, higher premiums and increased out-of-pocket expenses.
1... biggest advice to any female looking to break into finance... drop the feminista thing, it won't get you anywhere. It's ok to be bitchy, and in fact may help you in certain instances, but don't ever, ever pull the feminist card. There's nothing worse than a person who chalks up their own personal failings to an "anti-me" thing. It's nothing more than an excuse for being a slacker.
With more and more women are taking responsibility for their earnings and investments, the incorrect perception that all women are shopaholics and bad investors could well be a thing of the past. With inflation and taxes eating up a chunk of one’s salary, double income households are more the norm today. So, women have become savvier about savings, taxes, and investments when compared to a decade ago. Savings alone are never enough to meet a family’s financial goals. One needs to invest in order to get the best returns and the investments should be linked to goals.
Take on less risk. Women are more likely to have their savings allocated in a more age-based allocation of investments than their male counterparts. In fact, looking specifically at Fidelity retirement savings accounts over the last three years, the percentage of women allocated appropriately for their age has increased by approximately 40 percent. Furthermore, fewer women have their savings fully invested in equities than men (which could represent too much risk and not enough diversification); and women are more likely to invest in target date funds, ensuring they are well diversified.
MS. MELANNE VERVEER: Well, good afternoon everybody. It's a real personal pleasure for me to be here today. I can't tell you how inspired I was listening to Christy, and if she has proven anything it's that one person can make a difference. So, I think that's the lesson to take out of that. And thank you to Bank of America for all that you do in making not just this possible but so much more.
Women approach risk differently than men do. Studies show that men are more inclined to behave like baseball sluggers, who swing for the fences, even if it means running the risk of striking out far more often. Women, by contrast, are more like contact hitters, who are satisfied with a string of singles. These tendencies show up in various forms. For example, a 2013 study by Fidelity Investments found that men were much more likely than women to hold 100% of their assets in stocks. Openfolio’s data show that portfolios owned by men are subject to far wider swings in value. The problem is that investors who strike out frequently because they’re always trying to smash home runs can undermine their results.
If conditions out in the job market seem great, then plan for your next steps—polish up your resume and cover letter, make sure your interview clothes still fit, and get out there! However, if you’re seeing some warning signs that right now might not be the best time to jump ship, then bide your time and plan accordingly. Don’t forget, you can do some subtle and covert planning for your next job while you’re at your current one so when the iron is hot you’ll be prepared to strike!
MS. SPELLINGS: Well, in Charlotte you can't say that too much because we have people like Andrea Smith who are leading the Chamber of Commerce, and of course a woman that is the mayor, and the superintendent here is a woman, and one of my board of governors' members I think is here, Anna Nelson, and on and on and on, Ophelia Garmon-Brown who has been so instrumental in the economic mobility work here. But that notwithstanding, there are gaps and, you know, when you, and when you're in a place like Washington there is such a public service mentality and so many opportunities for women, we'll get into some of that, but I am puzzled by that, particularly when most, I mean women are going to college and getting out of college at rates that far exceed, and we need to work on our men obviously, but that exceed women. So, what happens between the time that we're getting out of college, attaining at high levels, and being in those leadership roles? We get lost. Right? Which is why programs like this are so important.
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Another reason why women may not be as aggressive as men when it comes to investing is because they are more conservative — they like to hang on to their cash, explains Cary Carbonaro, CFP and Managing Director of United Capital of NY and Author of the "Money Queen's Guide for Women Who Want to Build Wealth and Banish Fear". “When I tell my clients they should have an emergency fund, the men will tell me, ‘But I want my emergency fund in the market,’ and meanwhile the women will have five times the emergency fund they need, sitting in the bank, not doing anything. For some reason, women are afraid of losing money, while men seem to be afraid of losing out by not playing the market.”
Investment of capital makes the global economy run, every day. The U.S. would have struggled to create a national economy post World War II without money invested by asset management firms to build its highway infrastructure. Renewable energy sources such as solar and wind would not be a reality today, and in certain parts of the developing world, people would still be without clean drinking water if not for investment in water treatment facilities.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMO): A type of health insurance plan that usually limits coverage to care from doctors who work for or contract with the HMO. It generally won’t cover out-of-network care except in an emergency. An HMO may require you to live or work in its service area to be eligible for coverage. HMOs often provide integrated care and focus on prevention and wellness.
MS. NELSON: Well, we'll look forward to following your progress. Christine, I wonder about what Bank of America does internally. We've heard so much about what you're doing externally, and obviously I've seen it firsthand. But does that translate internally? What do you do for women employees and to spark women's leadership? I know you're doing something because over the last five years I've had the great opportunity to work with so many women leaders within Bank of America who've served as our global ambassadors, and I'm like, "This company is like made of amazing women. Not just so skilled but wanting to give back." And so, I wonder where does that come from within the company?
At the outset, The Man and Woman has wide difference in structure of their Brain, so their thinking line differs. The Man has two hemisphers and the nerves are concentrated in the hemisphere itself, interconnecting nerve between two is less. On the other hand , in case of Woman has interconnected nerves between the two hemishere are more, virtually it is one brain, and concentrate better, but only in one matter at a time. The Man can think more diverse at a given time.
That’s why I went to London. I did a Masters in finance for a year because I wanted to switch to something that was more in the private sector. Back then I thought I wanted to do consulting. They called it Litigation Consulting. There’s a lot of data analysis so it was very similar to what I did before in research but it’s still the private sector.
Best Advice: “Start reading the news! Even if it’s just one article about finance. You can sign up for alerts on your phone when anything happens in the market. That way you can learn about different financial terminology. The most nerve-wracking part of this industry is speaking to professionals and not sounding dumb or ignorant about the topics. I read The Wall Street Journal, and you can also listen to Bloomberg while you’re walking to class, just so you can hear the terminology.” 
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