WIN is a forum for full-time MBA women from top business schools around the country and investment professionals from sponsoring firms to gather, network, hear perspectives on investment careers and related topics from industry representatives, learn from distinguished women and men in the industry; and showcase their stock-picking skills in front of judges from sponsoring firms and obtain feedback on their pitches.  More than 60 women MBA students from top business schools and 65 representatives from top-tier investment management firms are expected to attend.

2. Most banker chicks I have met are hardcore nerds. They went to the best high schools in their respective countries. They are top 10% of their class. If they were here for their MBA, they went to top notch undergraduates either in the US or in their home countries. I haven't forgotten about American born Chinese (ABC). All of these banker chicks went to Ivy League.
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Conventional wisdom “blames” women for this gap. We receive messages that we’re not as good at math as men; we’re not as good at investing. Um, no. Studies have found that once women do invest, they outperform men by nearly one percentage point a year. This was confirmed recently by Fidelity, which analyzed the performance of 8 million retail clients in 2016. Typically women outperform because they don’t overtrade, panic in down markets, or pay too much in fees.
MS. VERVEER: One of the other things I've been in this learning experience about the region, the area, the state, and I understand the disparities between economic mobility, economic and equality, not peculiar here by any stretch but obviously significantly disparities, and maybe you can explain why. But we deal with that across the country, we deal with it all over the world. And we're here really focusing on entrepreneurship, and Bank of America has been a leader in enabling women to grow their entrepreneurial skills because we know what that can do to grow economies and provide the kind of wind at the back of economies.

Study after study has shown that women are less aggressive than men when it comes to investing. There are various arguments about why this is so. One theory is that that lower earnings from smaller paychecks result in a more conservative approach, as women try not lose what little they have. Another suggests that biology and the maternal instinct play a role, arguing that the protective instinct often credited to mothers makes them more reluctant to take risks.  Potential reasons aside, the more conservative approach to investing is generally associated with a variety of traits, including greater risk aversion, more concern about losses and less frequent trading. According to popular logic, these are all negative attributes to have when your objective is to make money in the financial markets. 
WIN is a forum for full-time MBA women from top business schools around the country and investment professionals from sponsoring firms to gather, network, hear perspectives on investment careers and related topics from industry representatives, learn from distinguished women and men in the industry; and showcase their stock-picking skills in front of judges from sponsoring firms and obtain feedback on their pitches.  More than 60 women MBA students from top business schools and 65 representatives from top-tier investment management firms are expected to attend.
Every time I was in an awarding of an Scientific Olympiad in my country (Brazil), I found strange that there were much more boys than girls, and it was a truth since 6th grade until High School. Well, I could not accept that there were nothing wrong with it because I knew some very intelligent girls. Before I get into High School, I studied in a regular class and some of the best grades were from girls, they potential was tremendous but they simply did not want to dedicate to this side. When I moved from my school to another and entered in a class focused in Sciences (Math, Physics and Chemistry) I realized that the majority of boys were a problem not just in the Olympiads, but in this area (STEM) itself (ant least in my country, but I believe that it unfortunately extends to other places as well). For me, it’s impossible to assume that this situation is due to a kind of “difficult” that girls would have in this subjects, as some supposes, even because some woman that I know are more than excellent at them. I believe that it’s a result of cultural scars left by a past in which girls were destined to stay in home and take care of things, a work that does not necessarily require much study. Than boys mass-dominated the STEM area. And now, due to the lack of representativity, the young girls don’t see themselves in this areas as much boys do. They do not look and imagine they being successful at it because very few were. They basically judge themselves as incapable and the shore as impossible. Of course, it’s not true, but some of them think it is. And so, the lack of women in this area causes a lack of women entering in this area… a loop. A sad loop…
I always hear about the frat-like feel, models and bottles etc .. But where do the girls fit in here ? What is the male to female ratio like ? Do the females hang out separately from the males, or do they join in on the bottle popping ? What about the females on the higher ranks of this career ? What do you think is generally the kind of girl that goes for this field ?
And if you’re new to the table, bring a friend. Murphy has recently criss-crossed the country speaking to groups of women about their money. She notes that one thing that helps reluctant women get involved is to do it with a friend. Events where the invite has said “bring a friend” draw standing room-only crowds, she says. “Women love talking to each other about their experiences and once they get started they do very well. There’s an unwarranted confidence gap that doesn’t play out.” 

Since the feminine approach to investing has been branded as a losing strategy, let's look at how the men have fared. Men have dominated the financial services world since its inception. They run the big companies, they dominate Wall Street and they control the money, but the empirical evidence suggests that their investment results consistently trail those generated by women. Also, in studies by John Coates (a former Wall Street trader), there is evidence to suggest that a connection between testosterone and risk taking leads to irrational exuberance. Coates notes that "Economists assumed that all behavior was conscious and rational … They were ignoring that fact that signals from the body, both chemical and electrical, affect how we take financial risks.
I certainly agree with your analysis. As you and some of the GWI scholars have mentioned, the finance industry is often depicted with its misogyny, corruption, and greed. I think this skewed and incomplete depiction of the finance industry is a huge obstacle in diversifying employment in the industry in terms of both race and gender. My relationship in finance began when I interned at a private equity firm in Shanghai, China two years ago. I overheard a private equity manager say it was “fortunate” that many Chinese workers were being burnt, as it helped the sales of a medical company that the firm invested in. It was like a scene straight out of the Wolf of Wall Street, steering me away from the money-driven industry.
To be able to be transformational in that sector we need to work on four essential areas; one is policy, mostly dealing with issues of access to land, and to do that the public sector plays a big role. The second issue we try to tackle in the area of agriculture is access to finance. And like Nigest said for the longest time the women have been confined to microfinance and small loans. So, when we look at access to finance we want to look at the broad spectrum of financial instruments, whether it's a guarantee funds, credit lines, private equity, leasing of, you know, agriculture equipment. And all of that we have to do with the private sector. When we talk about access to market, same thing. How do we make sure that these women that we're going to help produce more tomatoes, more mangos, everything else, have access to market? And that access to market can only be achieved through contractual relationship with private sector. So, once UN Women walk away three or four years later from the program that these women are able to continue. And lastly, skills development, exactly what we've been doing this whole week. How do we make sure that these women are productive, they use technology, they have a better use of water? So, as you can see in all of these four pillars in the area of agriculture we cannot do it alone.
Saul M. Simon, a certified financial planner with Simon Financial Group in Edison, N.J., recommends women investors start investing at work in their 401k or 403b retirement plans. Every dollar that goes into these plans reduces current income taxes. In addition, the money grows tax-deferred, and in many cases the employer matches a portion of your investment.
2. Make “friends” with risk. Women prefer to preserve wealth even if it means giving up higher returns. Take a 51-year-old attorney (who preferred not to give her name) as an example; she has consistently contributed the maximum allowed by her law firm’s retirement plan. “I know I should be investing in stocks, but I don’t want a repeat of 2008. My money is parked in a money market fund, where I know it’s safe.”

In fact, looking at actual data is one of the best ways to counteract the fear of investing. For example, are you afraid to invest in stocks because you remember the painful declines of the financial crisis? Well, in spite of the 36.55 percent plunge in the S&P 500 stock market index in 2008, this index gained an average of 7.25 percent annually between 2006 and 2015.
Shelly Bell has lived many lives. She’s a computer scientist, a former high school teacher, a performance poet, a community organizer, a founder, and a CEO. She has two successful apparel printing businesses: MsPrint USA—through which she creates swag for clients like Amazon and Google with a team of women designers and printers—and Made By A Black Woman, which celebrates products made by Black women.
Those are the questions we sought to answer through a survey conducted by CNBC and LinkedIn. This look at challenges facing women on Wall Street is the first in a series of surveys aimed at highlighting some of the big issues facing women in the workplace. We polled over 1,000 men and women who work across the financial services industry in banking, capital markets, financial services, investment banking and investment management in the U.S. The survey was conducted between April 18 and 27. Participants were invited on a random basis and self-reported gender.

MS. NIGEST HAILE: Thank you. In thinking of establishing a commercial bank is not an easy task, which all of you know, particularly the staff of the Bank of America and the rest of the others. We were really focusing on issues of the women operating in the small and medium enterprises, which we usually call the "missing middle." Which the formal banks are never interested to address their interests because of the issue of collateral, the stringent application processes, the lack of a track record in being their bankers, and all those. And yet, on the other side the microfinancing institutions are too small for those groups of women, so where do they fit? So, we said, 11 of us, visionary women who had been fully engaged in all of our full-time engagements, we said, "Let's have a solution. Why do we wait for the government? Why do we wait for people to come and help us? So, let's try to do it." That time was a very good opportunity for private banks to emerge, so we came out to be the 15th or the 16th private bank in Ethiopia, so we were able to do it. It was not an easy process. We had full-time jobs, busy traveling, doing our own tasks, but again no weekend, no sleep, our marriages suffered, our children suffered, but anyway, we left a legacy. So, we were able to establish the bank, actually the process started in 2008, we were registered as a national bank in 2011, but we started operation in 2013. You can see the process.

You know how the world of finance can sound like it’s full of jargon and its own vernacular? That’s quite intentional. “It’s always been in the industry’s best interest,” says Whitney Morrison, a financial planner at Wealthsimple, an online investment-management service. “If it’s confusing to the point that a regular person couldn’t possibly understand it, then you have to pay someone to navigate that for you, right?” Deliberately obfuscating language is designed to be intimidating, and that intimidation is worse for women largely because male financial advisors greatly outnumber their female colleagues. Also, women who want financial advice “may be confronted with someone who doesn’t fully understand their experience or take factors that primarily concern women—like living longer, taking more career breaks—into consideration,” Morrison says.

The lesson, says Ramona Persaud, manager of Fidelity Global Equity Income Fund (FGILX), is that it’s important to manage risk and avoid huge losses. If you invest in individual stocks, says Persaud, look for strong companies that are willing and able to pay generous dividends. “Your investment return is a combination of dividends and price appreciation,” she says. “If you have enough dividend yield, it dampens the downside.”
MS. CALABRESE BAIN: So, I can talk about a few of the ways that Bank of America has made some progress on this front because I think that there's always more that we can do around education. So, you know, we have a partnership with the National Association of Women Business Owners in 60 cities across the U.S. where we partner Bank of America/Merrill Lynch women chapter leaders in these local cities to really bring thought leadership, to bring education, sometimes to bring financing. But it is our way of understanding what is it that makes women business owners tick? So that how can we be more supportive? So, you saw a couple of things earlier on the screen. We've got a partnership with the Tory Burch Foundation Capital Program, which we started in 2014. We've been able to finance over 1,100 women, small business owners, and commit $25 million worth of capital, and we hope to see that program grow. We also work with our Community Development Financial Institutions. It's always a mouthful, but for those who are not familiar they really provide technical assistance and affordable loans across the U.S., and Bank of America is the largest investor of CDFIs. So, we're really thrilled with our participation with 240 lenders across the United States. So, thank you for all of the support and the partnership. Lastly speaking about one more program, through Andrea's support in supplier diversity and development, again this is another program where we can work directly with women and diverse owned businesses, and in 2016 actually invested over $2.6 billion in procurement spending.
Do you need to hear that again? Nothing will make as big a difference in your retirement account balance as the amount you save. Even just adding an additional 1% can tip the scales significantly. A 35-year old earning $60,000 a year who puts an extra 1% (roughly $50 per month) into her retirement account will have an extra $3200 per year to live on in retirement (assuming a 7% rate of return and 1.5% raises.)
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Another difference is that men are more likely to say that outperforming the market is their top investment goal, whereas women tend to mention specific financial goals, such as buying a house or retiring at 60. Affluent women are more likely to seek financial advice and fewer direct their own investments compared with men, according to Cerulli, a research firm. But they seem to be less satisfied with the advice they are getting. A survey in 2016 by Econsult Solutions, a consultancy, found that 62% of women with significant assets under management would consider ditching their manager, compared with 44% of men. Anecdotally, millennial women who inherit wealth are prone to firing the advisers who came with it.
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