Today, gender equality is in the spotlight like never before. The #MeToo movement has encouraged countless women to share their stories about being harassed at work—myself included. Powerful men have lost their power, while powerful women (hi, Oprah) are putting their platforms and their money into stopping workplace harassment and abuse. It’s been incredible. And it’s just the beginning.
Furthermore, women tend to be more cautious than men. They could be great assets for managing the less risky funds, as well as coming up with solid fixed-income investments. Although it is exciting to risk and watch the stock market volatility, asset management businesses need a “devil’s advocate” on the safer side, which is a great role for a woman to take. That is not to say that women can’t also make risky investments, but that is just the general consensus of psychological and sociological studies that I have read in the past.
I write contracts that are a little bit more involved in terms of tax and accounting stuff but also it’s a contract that helps the company raise money with certain objectives. So if you borrow money from the bank for a mortgage your credit rating goes down, same with the company’s. I do something with bonds that make them have ‘equity like; features, it’s called a hybrid. Basically what I do is create very funky bonds. [Laughs] That’s what I say in my Instagram profile because no one understands. It’s bonds, but it’s very funky.
MS. VERVEER: As is always the case. We have such little time left, but there are so many exceptional women in this room who have been ambassadors, mentors for other exceptional women, many from other parts of the world who are the mentees in various areas. We touched very briefly on mentorship. You also mentioned sponsorship. But I've always noticed that when one comes into these arrangements of the mentee and the mentor each benefit--
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Communicate. If you have questions, your friends and family probably do too. Not only is it time for money to stop being a taboo conversation topic, but ensuring you're on the same page with your loved ones about financial goals and responsibilities can be critical. Fidelity has numerous resources to help have these conversations with parents, partners and kids.
Janet Cowell’s words mean that the diversity of gender brings us different perspectives. The integration of a large number of women workforces can add fresh blood to the industry. In my opinion, women are conservative in the asset management industry and are not as venturous as men. This more cautionary mindset enables women professionals to manage great assets for the less risky funds, while male professionals may encourager bigger risks. A company without women is like a car without a brake, which will run into risks someday.

This is a very valid concern. Yes, we are expected to stay as late as the males. I work in SF, and we are told to take taxis home, which can still be dangerous late at night. The world is a much more threatening place for women than men. All I can tell you is to be aware of what is going on during the ride. Also, I usually text the cab's license number to my parents and boyfriend and talk to someone over the phone for however long I am in the cab.
Janet Cowell’s words mean that the diversity of gender brings us different perspectives. The integration of a large number of women workforces can add fresh blood to the industry. In my opinion, women are conservative in the asset management industry and are not as venturous as men. This more cautionary mindset enables women professionals to manage great assets for the less risky funds, while male professionals may encourager bigger risks. A company without women is like a car without a brake, which will run into risks someday.
And this program, the Global Ambassador's Program was really founded on that core belief. It started as a partnership between Vital Voices, a nonprofit organization, nongovernmental organization, and Bank of America of course, major multinational corporation. And one of the things that I think was so profound is that right from the beginning it was about an equal partnership, that we each have something to bring to the table, even though one entity was a lot smaller than the other. But I think what was so incredible about the launch of that was just this idea that we're going to not only look at how we tap into so many great leaders, women leaders in the bank, but also how do we leverage so many other leaders in other organizations? And I think that takes a lot of insight from a company to understand that, that partnership is not just about you and someone in another sector, it could be about even partnering with some of your competitors to ultimately, you know, make a difference in the long run.
While parents remain the top source of financial advice for most women, only 20 percent said they felt well prepared by their parents to manage their finances as an adult. Even fewer said they learned about these topics in school. Only 24 percent learned about budgeting and setting financial goals; 14 percent said they learned about investing. Overall, only nine percent of women said their education through high school left them well prepared to manage personal finances as an adult. A slightly better 10 percent said this of their college education9.
Bottom line, don't be something you're not. be firm, but not a real bitch who can't play well with others. Be nice, but don't be a pushover. Don't go into banking with self-doubts because you're a girl. Sure, there are definitely times where it will be awkward (guys who do just 'guy' things, talking about girls, etc) but it's best to just go with the flow in those instances.
Women are often more cautious than men, a quality which has become highly valued in the post-financial crisis world. Intuition is another valuable ‘female’ quality when it comes to investment decisions. And last but not least, women are often more goal-driven, knowing that they sometimes need to work twice as hard as their male colleagues to get ahead.
“The GWI program is one of the programs that the institute is implementing to make more female students aware of the careers in investment management,” Mary Scott, associate director of the Notre Dame Institute for Global Investing (NDIGI), said of the program. “As we broaden awareness of how intellectually stimulating and rewarding these types of careers can be, our hope is that more females will be interested in pursuing this industry.”
To be able to be transformational in that sector we need to work on four essential areas; one is policy, mostly dealing with issues of access to land, and to do that the public sector plays a big role. The second issue we try to tackle in the area of agriculture is access to finance. And like Nigest said for the longest time the women have been confined to microfinance and small loans. So, when we look at access to finance we want to look at the broad spectrum of financial instruments, whether it's a guarantee funds, credit lines, private equity, leasing of, you know, agriculture equipment. And all of that we have to do with the private sector. When we talk about access to market, same thing. How do we make sure that these women that we're going to help produce more tomatoes, more mangos, everything else, have access to market? And that access to market can only be achieved through contractual relationship with private sector. So, once UN Women walk away three or four years later from the program that these women are able to continue. And lastly, skills development, exactly what we've been doing this whole week. How do we make sure that these women are productive, they use technology, they have a better use of water? So, as you can see in all of these four pillars in the area of agriculture we cannot do it alone.
Every time I was in an awarding of an Scientific Olympiad in my country (Brazil), I found strange that there were much more boys than girls, and it was a truth since 6th grade until High School. Well, I could not accept that there were nothing wrong with it because I knew some very intelligent girls. Before I get into High School, I studied in a regular class and some of the best grades were from girls, they potential was tremendous but they simply did not want to dedicate to this side. When I moved from my school to another and entered in a class focused in Sciences (Math, Physics and Chemistry) I realized that the majority of boys were a problem not just in the Olympiads, but in this area (STEM) itself (ant least in my country, but I believe that it unfortunately extends to other places as well). For me, it’s impossible to assume that this situation is due to a kind of “difficult” that girls would have in this subjects, as some supposes, even because some woman that I know are more than excellent at them. I believe that it’s a result of cultural scars left by a past in which girls were destined to stay in home and take care of things, a work that does not necessarily require much study. Than boys mass-dominated the STEM area. And now, due to the lack of representativity, the young girls don’t see themselves in this areas as much boys do. They do not look and imagine they being successful at it because very few were. They basically judge themselves as incapable and the shore as impossible. Of course, it’s not true, but some of them think it is. And so, the lack of women in this area causes a lack of women entering in this area… a loop. A sad loop…
anyone who has reached adulthood should have been made fully aware that sexism exists. to deny that is naive at best. however, that is not my thesis here that that is a digress to assert some basic common sense. in other words, despite this and that, what should be done, i want to get more color on the culture in IB community. an adult outside that community does not necessarily know! therefore i ask! in fact, one post suggested that it is actually easier for females now to get into IB. IMAGINE MY CONFUSION!

“Women have more power and earning potential than ever before. They now make up the majority of college graduates, represent nearly half the labor force and are the primary breadwinners in 42 percent of households,” says Bast, who cited The Shriver Report published in 2014. “Because they’re balancing careers and families with philanthropic pursuits and other projects, however, they often place others ahead of themselves.”
According to a recent article on The Muse, “Those who took meaningful steps to achieve their resolutions—setting step-by-step goals or telling their friends and family, for example—were far more likely to achieve their desires than those who made no specific commitments… So if you really want to see results this year, it’s critical that you set your goals with sincerity, and set yourself up for success.”
Younger men are far more likely to invest according to their values than their fathers were; 81% of millennial men in Morgan Stanley’s survey were interested in sustainable investing. And though fewer American men than women say they want to invest in companies with diverse leadership, the share is still sizeable, at 42%. If gender-lens investing is truly to take off, it will have to appeal to those who control the bulk of wealth—and that is still men.
MS. SMITH: Great. Josefina Urzaiz, we have Nigest Haile, who is the founder and executive director of the Center for Accelerated Women's Economic Empowerment, and also Jill Calabrese Bain from Bank of America. Thank you all very much. [Applause] Next up, why partnering is good for women and good for the world, but first please take a moment and watch this next video.
The Boston Consulting Group reported that between 2010 and 2015, private wealth held by women grew from $34 trillion to $51 trillion. Most of the private wealth that will change hands in the next 20 or 30 years will go into the hands of women. There are multiple reasons for this, reports The Economist, one of them being that participation in the labor market is increasing and women are being paid more. Another is that women are inheriting more money from their husbands or parents, who are more likely to treat sons and daughters equally than they have done historically.

“Most women will spend at least part of their life on their own, either because they never marry or because they lose a spouse to divorce or death. This means many will be forced to manage their own finances in their later years without the support of a partner,” says Bast. “And because women tend to live longer than men, their money will need to stretch further.”
Every investor makes mistakes. Sometimes it is an error of commission: You buy a real stinker. Sometimes it is an error of omission: You hang onto a loser, or a winner, for too long. But knowing what and when to sell is at least as important as knowing what to buy. “You have to know when to pull the plug,” says Sarah Ketterer, chief executive of Causeway Capital Management and the longtime comanager of her firm’s flagship fund, Causeway International Value (CIVVX).
MS. SMITH: More than 200 million women worldwide are running businesses. These are amazing women, and yet there are obstacles that keep these amazing women from reaching their full potential, and that includes lack of access to capital. But the women on this panel are doing something about it, and we're going to talk to them about what they're doing and how they're overcoming those obstacles, and we're going to learn something about it as we go. I want to introduce Josefina Urzaiz, who is the co-founder of Hammock Boutique, and Fundación Cielo in Mexico. Next to her is Nigest Haile, who is the Founder and Executive Director of the Center for Accelerated Women's Economic Empowerment in Ethiopia. And next to her is Jill Calabrese Bain, and Jill is with Bank of America. She is the Managing Director and Head of Sales for Bank of America's Merchant Services. So, I'm going to begin with Nigest. So, you are the founder of Enat Bank, which focuses on women. Why was it necessary to start a bank for women in Ethiopia? 

It’s great to see this, but the firm and industry as a whole have a long way to go to achieve parity. Being a woman in this industry does have its advantages—I feel like I’m often more noticed and better able to stand out for my accomplishments. However, I’m equally likely to be talked over in a room full of men, and have certainly experienced sexist remarks in the workplace, even if unintentional. For example, I’ve been referred to as “the email girl” by an older white male at a client event just because I handled the logistics…and you tell me if they’d ever a call a guy “the email guy.” I have a name!
There’s also a concept I think you should be familiar with. It’s called passive investing. The idea is that it’s smarter to invest across the entire market and then not pay attention to it, than it is to pick stocks or pay someone else to pick stocks. It’s easier and less expensive, and historically it’s been more successful. In fact, Warren Buffett made a $1 million wager that passive investing would beat hedge funds—and he was right. It’s why he advises his heirs to invest passively with their money.
As  banks' claims to diversity are blown apart by the figures emerging from the UK's gender pay gap reporting requirements, how does it feel to be a woman in finance? Do you buy the Goldman story that men and women are paid equally for equal work and it's just a question of getting more women into senior slots, or do you get angry and point to more insidious issues?
Break the silence on money. " Our study found that 61% of women would rather discuss details of their own death over money topics ," Sabbia said. "This is impeding women’s financial empowerment and preventing them from taking needed action to build up wealth." Sabbia suggest that women with more advanced knowledge should encourage and lead open discussions with other women about financial and investing goals, concerns and fears.  Discussions could be in and outside of the workplace, by holding "investing 101" events or even more casual and intimate small group coffees or dinners. That sort of venue could help encourage women to share investing success stories, advice and actionable tips for getting started.
MS. SPELLINGS: Yeah, I think often, we dwell on kind of the half empty, "omen are not on tenure track, women are not on corporate boards" and all those sorts of things. And we need to pay attention to it. But I do think there are enormous assets to be in public service and to be a woman in public service. One, we all are motivated by, as Christy Turlington Burns was doing something for someone else. We all know friends who are like man I've been a lawyer all my life and I just, is that all there is? Well, if you're in working to close the achievement gap or improve maternal health you've got that mission, that fire in your belly to leave something behind that's bigger than yourself number one, and number two, and you and I have both enjoyed these experiences, when you're in public life and public service you'll be stunned at the kind of reach you can have as a woman, managing large amounts of money, managing large numbers of people, just an incredible opportunity for careers in public service and public life.
The lack of confidence carries a big cost. For instance, more young women than young men defer retirement planning in their 20s, according to the Employee Benefits Research Institute. They take Social Security early, cutting their lifetime benefits. And financial advisors have long noted that wives often defer to their husbands, even though research shows that generally speaking, women are better investors than men.
One reason for women’s growing wealth is that far more of them are in well-paid work than before. In America, women’s rate of participation in the labour market rose from 34% in 1950 to 57% in 2016. Another is that women are inheriting wealth from husbands, who tend to be older and to have shorter lives, or from parents, who are more likely than previous generations to treat sons and daughters equally. As baby-boomers reach their sunset years, this transfer will speed up.
MS. CRONSTEDT: So, I think that sometimes you're too afraid or scared to ask somebody for help, to be your mentor, but we've learned today and in the program during this week is that you can simply ask. And it can be just a question, and you can have a mini mentor just for that simple thing that you're asking about. It could be something you need for your business, a connection that you might need. So, maybe there is an opportunity for mini mentoring around us all the time, and I would really promote that, do that, ask the questions, say what you need, and it is around us, and I think I've had many more mentors that I actually think that I've had. They're around us. Yeah.

Top GWI Takeaway: “In investment banking, they’re always making DCF models. I’ve always wondered, ‘What does this stand for? What are they doing?’ While we were here we worked in Excel and found out about DCF. DCF stands for Discounted Cash Flow [and is a valuation method used to evaluate the attractiveness of an investment opportunity.] I saw [company] income statement, balance sheet, working capital, cash flows; these are all different sheets within Excel that you bring together to create the DCF. I also saw how it intertwined with finding the value of a company, because you have to account for inflation and how much a company would be worth in five years.” 

It would be impossible to save every single dollar you need to live on in retirement yourself. Unless you make so much money that your month-to-month expenses are only a small fraction of what you make, then you likely don’t make enough to amass enough retirement savings dollar by dollar. That’s why you invest: You invest some money and by the time you sell that investment (in an ideal world), you have a lot more than what you put in.
Textbooks and school supplies. Course materials could eat up a large chunk of your budget. The average estimated cost of books and supplies for in-state students living on campus at public four-year institutions in 2016-2017 was $1,250, according to the College Board. Also plan for purchases like notebooks, a laptop, a printer and a backpack, and read the do’s and don’ts of back-to-school shopping for money-saving tips.
The unique BGV Pitch Competition, of which there are 10 per year, is described on the website as “a crowdfunding meets pitch competition.” Attendees pay admission at the door, selected founders pitch for three minutes, and the audience votes. Winners receive the money raised from admission fees, in addition to other perks like a free consultation with both a lawyer and an accountant and a meeting with an investor.

Positive intent can be a powerful motivating force for change and growth in our lives, but the truth is that it’s often not enough—this is the reason why the majority of us fail to completely commit and follow through on the resolutions we make each year. The truth is, most resolutions flounder in the starting gate without any real forward progress ever being made, and many others are met with a feeble, half-hearted effort that eventually goes nowhere. We need more than a positive attitude and hope—we need a plan.
At Ellevest, we’ve found (and research confirms) that women are not so much risk-averse but risk-aware—meaning that they want to thoroughly understand a risk before they take it on. And once they do? A study from the University of California at Berkeley describes women as “rational” investors, meaning that they take on smart risks, and the women in the study outperformed the men, whose overtrading due to overconfidence was a less successful move in the long run.
He also found that cortisol levels rise during a market crash, increasing risk aversion among traders and exacerbating the decline. Since women have significant lower testosterone levels, Coates argues that they are less prone to the irrational exuberance associated with stock market bubbles. While the study by Coats is focused on biological factors, it is not the only study to draw similar conclusions with regard to the investment behavior differences between men and women.
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