3. Create an investment plan. Once you have set your goals, you need to create a solid investment plan. First, determine how much money you have to invest, and start thinking about how to make your money work for you to achieve your financial goals. Rather than a set of rules, an investment plan provides guidelines that can help you organize and direct your energies. Financial plans should have continuity and a solid foundation, but at the same time be adaptable to changes that invariably happen in life. For more on financial planning, read Developing a Personal Financial Plan.

As  banks' claims to diversity are blown apart by the figures emerging from the UK's gender pay gap reporting requirements, how does it feel to be a woman in finance? Do you buy the Goldman story that men and women are paid equally for equal work and it's just a question of getting more women into senior slots, or do you get angry and point to more insidious issues?
Younger men are far more likely to invest according to their values than their fathers were; 81% of millennial men in Morgan Stanley’s survey were interested in sustainable investing. And though fewer American men than women say they want to invest in companies with diverse leadership, the share is still sizeable, at 42%. If gender-lens investing is truly to take off, it will have to appeal to those who control the bulk of wealth—and that is still men.
MS. CRONSTEDT: But it's, it's a field that I'm very, very passionate about, and as we've been talking today, like what does it take for women to be successful or the communities to be prosperous? Well, it takes that you can have a choice. It's all, it's about the choice that you can have, that no mother and no parent/family should be forced to stay at home with their children just because they couldn't afford it. You know? I have three boys in like three years. Like having the money in preschool it would have been so extremely expensive that I maybe and probably wouldn't have been able to take that risk. I wouldn't have the financial means. So, that is a real, it's a very, it's a gap that I'm very interested into looking into very deep, and try to do something about.
The first thing I want to make clear is that women really are missing out right now. Investing is a huge wealth generator, and women, for one reason or another, tend to do it less. Seventy-one percent of the money women have is in cash, and any financial advisor will tell you, cash not only doesn’t earn a return; it actually depreciates over time thanks to inflation. The stock market, on the other hand, has returned an average of 9.5 percent for the past ninety years, even including the horrific downturn in 2007. The good news is a lot of companies are trying to figure out how to change that. Partly because it’s the right thing to do, partly because it’s good business.
The first bank we had been to reach break-even when we were eight months, the 15th private bank reached a break even in years, and we're the only bank in the country that we were able to give dividend the first year, where the rest of the other banks were able to give dividend after three years. So, we have so many objectives focusing in our unique bank. We were able to develop unique products and services, credit and saving schemes. We also do provide men financial services so that we keep our women boards of finance in the capacity managing the finance.
Without investment, Facebook and Amazon might have been just interesting projects hatched in a dorm room or garage. Starbucks might still be just a few coffee shops in Seattle without investors who enabled the company to expand to over 20,000 stores worldwide today. The world's most innovative companies rely on investors to fund growth and expansion.
Millennials’ perspective on their later years and how to get there hints at a possible redefining of retirement, according to the latest Merrill Edge® Report. Nearly half (41 percent) of the generation surveyed expects to retire when they hit a certain financial milestone or savings goal, whereas their older counterparts are focused on leaving the workforce when they hit a certain age or can no longer work due to health concerns.
MS. KATZIFF: So, to exactly that, the many, I would just add there is no one perfect mentor, so surround yourself with many people because you can pick and choose strengths. Everyone has different strengths. And so, think of it as you are the CEO of your business, of your career, and you get to select your Board of Directors, and that is how you should think about mentorship, where similar to any company who looks for a strong Board of Directors you pick multiple skills. You would never pick one person with one skill. So, diversify and have mentors that you tap into and rely on, depending on the situation, and you get diversity of thought.

Being a diverse and inclusive company is essential to our ability to meet the needs of our clients, communities and employees. As a part of this, we empower women to make meaningful contributions within our company and in our communities. We have strong representation of women at all levels and we are focused on attracting, retaining and developing our diverse talent. We also recognize that women play a vital role in driving economic growth, and we have many partnerships to connect women entrepreneurs to mentoring, capital and other tools that will advance their businesses and make significant contributions to our global economy.

The first thing I want to make clear is that women really are missing out right now. Investing is a huge wealth generator, and women, for one reason or another, tend to do it less. Seventy-one percent of the money women have is in cash, and any financial advisor will tell you, cash not only doesn’t earn a return; it actually depreciates over time thanks to inflation. The stock market, on the other hand, has returned an average of 9.5 percent for the past ninety years, even including the horrific downturn in 2007. The good news is a lot of companies are trying to figure out how to change that. Partly because it’s the right thing to do, partly because it’s good business.
MS. NELSON: To move things forward. So, I want to, I want to come to you Christine and the work of Bank of America because you've been long believers, obviously the partnership with Vital Voices is five years old, but you've been working for many years to, you know, really advance the development agenda, particularly women, but really to focus on partnership. Why does Bank of America believe that? I mean you are a huge corporation with lots of resources and entities around the world. Why is it important to partner with NGOs or governments?
although it sounds great---i am not being argumentative--that more females are getting into fields previously dominated by males, i think it is still an uphill battle thus important to get a feel to the environment and culture. there may be unwarranted traditions, but there may also be some practical considerations, that is, some fields are better suited for one sex vs the other for understandable reasons. say, most top surgeons are males. heck, most top OB GYNs are males!
With more and more women are taking responsibility for their earnings and investments, the incorrect perception that all women are shopaholics and bad investors could well be a thing of the past. With inflation and taxes eating up a chunk of one’s salary, double income households are more the norm today. So, women have become savvier about savings, taxes, and investments when compared to a decade ago. Savings alone are never enough to meet a family’s financial goals. One needs to invest in order to get the best returns and the investments should be linked to goals.
It is a very demanding profession as one needs to devote all her time and attention to work alone leaving less time for family. So when people have kids and don't have someone back at home to rear them, it becomes a source of constant guilt and grief for everyone in the system. It becomes extremely competitive and political at the senior management levels as only a few people can be accommodated at that level. If one is not able to give her 100% to work for whatever reasons, it becomes difficult to compete. It finally boils to the candidate's personal rapport with the top management and conscious gender sensitivity on the part of the organisation to get over this hurdle. Most firms are found wanting on this factor though in recent times at least the established ones with a large work force are trying to be conscious about it.
October 14, 2018, JAKARTA –  An important editorial on widening women’s access to financial services by Taimur Baig, Chief Economist of DBS Bank and member of Women’s World Banking’s Southeast Advisory Council, has been published in a special IMF edition of The Jakarta Post. The 2016 Financial Inclusion Survey, carried out by the Financial Service […]
While it is naïve to think that complete gender equality on Wall Street would happen overnight, the bottom line is that women, who have largely stood at the sidelines of investment banking, have potential for being successful in the field and investment banks are increasingly looking to tap that potential. Or to quote the great Bob Dylan, the times, they are a-changin’.
While millennials are taking a goal-oriented approach toward their retirement, they align with Americans overall in thinking they could be more proactive. Nearly half (48 percent) of Americans say they are most insecure about some aspect of their finances (financial future, retirement savings or income), with retirement savings (21 percent) being one of their top insecurities, ahead of their personal relationships (10 percent), judgment of others (6 percent) and career path (4 percent).
MS. NELSON: So, Oulimata, I know that you are a Global Ambassador in this program, but you've also participated as a mentor for another program supported by Bank of America, the Cherie Blair Foundation's work with mentoring, particularly online mentoring. Can you talk a little bit about your experiences with both of those programs, first with the Cherie Blair Foundation?

I agree there is some discrimination and it effects women of a certain age the hardest. Generally, it's not going to impact analysts or women over 40. Most often it's going to effect women in their mid/late twenties to early forties. Why? Well, it's sort of obvious. These are the years where professional women are most likely to have kids. Hiring a woman in this age range is much riskier for the employer, because you are probably going to have to endure 1-2 maternity leaves in the best of scenarios or the complete withdrawal from the work force.
Who among us doesn’t want a loftier position with a more impressive sounding title and a higher salary, regardless of where we currently work? The truth is, this isn’t always an immediately attainable reality for everyone—maybe you’re just getting started at your current job and it’s too soon to start thinking about a promotion, or maybe the place you work at is small and there’s no clear upward trajectory. Whatever the reason, if you’re seeking a promotion and there’s no obvious path for growth for you in your current job, perhaps this means you should make a more drastic change as part of your New Year’s resolution planning.

MS. SMITH: Awesome. Well, thank you so much. This has been I think quite a treat for everyone, and we really appreciate you coming in. I know you've got a packed schedule and you're leaving shortly. So, thank you again and let's give Christy a round of applause. [Applause] And now, now I have the pleasure, as Christine mentioned earlier, we have an action-packed panel. So, now we have Melanne Verveer coming up who I'm sure everyone knows, but most recently a book, an ambassador, so many things. And Margaret Spellings, the President of our UNC systems. So, Melanne is going to interview I think Margaret, or maybe Margaret will interview Melanne, and it will be really fantastic. So, ladies, come on up.
And if you’re new to the table, bring a friend. Murphy has recently criss-crossed the country speaking to groups of women about their money. She notes that one thing that helps reluctant women get involved is to do it with a friend. Events where the invite has said “bring a friend” draw standing room-only crowds, she says. “Women love talking to each other about their experiences and once they get started they do very well. There’s an unwarranted confidence gap that doesn’t play out.”

The Boston Consulting Group reported that between 2010 and 2015, private wealth held by women grew from $34 trillion to $51 trillion. Most of the private wealth that will change hands in the next 20 or 30 years will go into the hands of women. There are multiple reasons for this, reports The Economist, one of them being that participation in the labor market is increasing and women are being paid more. Another is that women are inheriting more money from their husbands or parents, who are more likely to treat sons and daughters equally than they have done historically.
“We were then left with a chunk of that cash plus some Unilever share options. That’s the point where Jennie really wasn’t interested,” says Mr Byrne. Initially he invested in a low-cost “tracker” fund that simply mirrored the performance of the FTSE 100 index, but after building up his confidence he put money in funds run by professional managers, which have delivered better returns.
MS. NELSON: That's great. That's great. I want to just in the three or so minutes we have remaining just if each of you could tell me about either your personal experience with mentoring, why did it make an impact, not to get into a long story, but you know, what was the impact? Why is it valuable? Or if you'd rather, how do you find a mentor? What advice do you have for maybe people who are here today who are like I'd like a mentor?
As CEO of the Marketing Zen Group, we work with clients in a variety of industries, finance being one of them. Recently, I was pleasantly surprised to learn that one of our clients, Allegiance Capital Corporation, a premier middle-market investment bank, had launched a proactive initiative to attract more women for business development and investment banker roles. I was very curious to learn more. What compelled them to encourage women in an industry which has historically been known to be a “boys only” club?
Some more interesting results have been released, in case you're interested in adding it to the list. A recently released PwC article highlights some of the issues women face in breaking into the financial services industry, the basic finding is while involving diverse groups improves business performance - so irrespective of an ethical case there is a business one - many women for instance, still find themselves sidelined with 60% saying financial services firms are not doing enough to encourage diversity.
Knowledge shortfall. In truth, women do appear to be less knowledgeable about investing than men are. A 2015 study by Financial Finesse found that 67% of women answered yes when asked whether they have “general investment knowledge regarding stocks, bonds and mutual funds,” compared with 84% of men. And the figures don’t just represent women’s lack of confidence, says Kathie Andrade, president of personal advisory services at TIAA. The financial-services firm asked men and women a series of questions about bonds, asset allocation, inflation and interest rates and found that men scored considerably higher overall.
Less than half of female respondents (46 percent) said they were socking away 6 percent or more of their salaries, which means more than half are not taking advantage of the full employer-matching contribution. In general, employers match up to 6 percent of worker wages in 401(k) plans. In contrast, nearly six out of 10 Millennial males (57 percent) saved 6 percent or more of their pay in these tax-sheltered retirement accounts, the survey found.
Women entrepreneurs continue to face significant disadvantages in business despite studies showing that their companies actually outperform all-male companies by 63%. Incredibly, female business owners receive only 3% of venture capital investments, significantly limiting the growth of their companies. Female founders of color receive a mere fraction of that amount. We at FUND Conference are determined to help change this.
Coming in, I expected that my colleagues would be ultra-Type A, all work/no play, super serious folks given the nature of our work. But I’ve been pleasantly surprised by the great relationships and friendships I’ve developed at work and the camaraderie on our floor. I also expected the job to be extremely difficult in terms of the learning curve and was worried about my ability to handle it. It certainly is challenging, but with the support of my colleagues and mentors, I can really map out how much I’ve grown and learned over the past year. Everyone wants each other to succeed.
And women are nothing if not team players. In Vanguard’s 2014 study “How America Saves,” which tracked the behavior of participants in the retirement plans it administers, the fund company found that women are more likely than men to seek professional help in managing their portfolios, mainly through the use of balanced and target-date mutual funds. (The former hold a fairly static mix of stocks and bonds; the latter adjust their asset mix as the fund approaches the target date.) And Vanguard’s research shows that participants who use professionally managed portfolios have better results than those who don’t. “Women are natural collaborators,” says Ketterer. “Building a team is playing to our strengths.”

You should not have any credit card debt. This means you pay off your credit card balances in full every month. Why credit card debt in particular? Because if you aren’t paying that off every month, you aren’t making enough to support your basic living expenses. Once you get a budget that keeps you out of the red on a monthly basis (excluding debt like student or car loans), then you can start thinking about investing. (If you have credit card debt, try our Get Out of Debt Bootcamp.)
After setting up this organization and being a profitable business which makes us sustainable we realized that we were still not changing some habits in these families. Yes, they had a steady income but if the kid said, "I want to drop out of school when I'm 12," the mother said okay, fine, you don't want to go to school? Don't go to school. Or they were having Coca-Cola for breakfast, not that I have anything against Coca-Cola, but if they're suffering from diabetes maybe it's better that they have oranges, that they have orange trees in the backyard.
MS. NELSON: So, Oulimata, I know that you are a Global Ambassador in this program, but you've also participated as a mentor for another program supported by Bank of America, the Cherie Blair Foundation's work with mentoring, particularly online mentoring. Can you talk a little bit about your experiences with both of those programs, first with the Cherie Blair Foundation?
Disclaimer: References from this Web site or from any of the information services sponsored by WISER/National Resource Center to any entity, product, service or information does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by WISER/National Resource Center or any of its employees. WISER/National Resource Center is not responsible for the contents of any 'off-site' Web pages references from this server. Although our page includes links to sites including or referencing good collections of information, WISER/National Resource Center does not endorse ANY specific products or services provided by public or private organizations.

Once I asked my dad a question who is an entrepreneur, “Do you think women are treated differently from men in work field?” He said, “No, as an owner of a company, we explore the full potential of every employee and make sure their talent is best used. Otherwise, why should we hire a person and why do we waste our money?” This dialogue between my dad and I partly illustrates the expectations of an employer — it’s not the gender that matters. It’s the capability that matters. Then, we talked about the status of women in China. We both believe that the status of female employee is increasing. But this doesn’t mean inequity has been put to a stop. Instead, more and more people come to speak out about their unfair experience. Even then, it is still a global problem that women are rejected due to stereotypes.
Women need to master the art of investing, in order to stay financially independent and also to ensure that their goals are always in line with the family’s goals. So, is there an age where women should start looking at investments? Actually, there is no particular age to start saving and investing. The earlier you start the better it is. This holds true whether or not you’re a woman.
Don't put your investments on long-term autopilot. One of women's strengths as investors is that they are less tempted to buy and sell in the short term, based on classic research by Brad M. Barber and Terrance Odean at the University of California-Berkeley. But at least once a year, you need to become an active investor, checking your asset allocation as you age and your needs change. That means changing your asset allocation when it's required, or hiring an investment advisor or an online investment platform to do it for you. "This was my own mistake in 2008. ... I didn't have cash, and I was fairly close to retirement," said Hounsell.
"As more women invest, we will demonstrate through a show of force that we believe in each other enough to invest in each other — whether we can invest $1 or millions. We will do this by choosing investments that advance women and help improve our world. We will commit 25% of our investment portfolios to “impact investments” by 2025." — Let’s Disrupt Money
As an alternative, open a savings account with a high annual percentage yield (APY), which means you’ll earn interest based on how much you deposit into your savings account. According to Bankrate.com, a good APY is between 3 and 5 percent. Make sure when that your direct deposit hits, you’re automating your payments into your savings account that way you won’t forget. However, make sure it is not easily accessible to make withdrawals from your savings. If you feel you don’t have the self-control to not withdraw from your savings, here’s a few reasons why you should keep your checking and savings account at different banks, according to LearnVest.
First, you need to have a dream; second an idea of what your goal is and third, passion. Obviously having the skill set and working hard are important, but if you don’t have a dream and a goal, then don’t be surprised when you don’t get there. And if you don’t fill your dream with passion, then you can become disheartened about your career choice during the tough times. And there are always tough times in a cyclical business like finance.
“The more women manage funds, the more funds get channeled into issues women care about,” says Nathalie Molina Niño, CEO of Brava Investments. “When someone brings on one female fund manager, we’re talking about potentially billions of dollars that get moved in a different direction.” She says that questions like “How many of your fund managers are women?” used to be rare in the industry, but now that more and more people are asking, large institutions are getting nervous—mostly because the answer is often “none” or “few.”

October 14, 2018, JAKARTA –  An important editorial on widening women’s access to financial services by Taimur Baig, Chief Economist of DBS Bank and member of Women’s World Banking’s Southeast Advisory Council, has been published in a special IMF edition of The Jakarta Post. The 2016 Financial Inclusion Survey, carried out by the Financial Service […]
MS. NIGEST HAILE: Thank you. In thinking of establishing a commercial bank is not an easy task, which all of you know, particularly the staff of the Bank of America and the rest of the others. We were really focusing on issues of the women operating in the small and medium enterprises, which we usually call the "missing middle." Which the formal banks are never interested to address their interests because of the issue of collateral, the stringent application processes, the lack of a track record in being their bankers, and all those. And yet, on the other side the microfinancing institutions are too small for those groups of women, so where do they fit? So, we said, 11 of us, visionary women who had been fully engaged in all of our full-time engagements, we said, "Let's have a solution. Why do we wait for the government? Why do we wait for people to come and help us? So, let's try to do it." That time was a very good opportunity for private banks to emerge, so we came out to be the 15th or the 16th private bank in Ethiopia, so we were able to do it. It was not an easy process. We had full-time jobs, busy traveling, doing our own tasks, but again no weekend, no sleep, our marriages suffered, our children suffered, but anyway, we left a legacy. So, we were able to establish the bank, actually the process started in 2008, we were registered as a national bank in 2011, but we started operation in 2013. You can see the process.
The reluctance to invest outside of company plans may be related to women’s lack of confidence in their investing abilities, which can make them prone to procrastination. “Women hold back because they think they need to know everything before they invest,” says Alexandra Lebenthal, chief executive of Lebenthal & Co., a New York City money-management company. Krawcheck agrees, saying that wanting to know more before getting started can be a trap. “There’s always a desire to know more. But if you wait, it just gets harder,” she says.
2. In a team work, Woman are are worst performer, They are very good pal , sharing tiffin in canteen , going market along , but in case of official hiererchy, woman always want a man boss. I dont know what is the philosophy, but i seen, I felt- so I am writing. decision is in your hands. The result suffers due to poor co operation between the woman , and ultimately they blame to Glass Ceiling - that is not true.
Another reason why women may not be as aggressive as men when it comes to investing is because they are more conservative — they like to hang on to their cash, explains Cary Carbonaro, CFP and Managing Director of United Capital of NY and Author of the "Money Queen's Guide for Women Who Want to Build Wealth and Banish Fear". “When I tell my clients they should have an emergency fund, the men will tell me, ‘But I want my emergency fund in the market,’ and meanwhile the women will have five times the emergency fund they need, sitting in the bank, not doing anything. For some reason, women are afraid of losing money, while men seem to be afraid of losing out by not playing the market.”
One senior woman at a European bank argued that the push to promote more women is itself problematic. "The senior men have now got a cover for promoting the younger women who flirt with them," she said. "They know they have to promote X number of women each year, so they look around and they promote the women who kiss up to them most instead of the women who are the most competent. It's the same as the old boys' network, with flirtation instead of familiarity."
MS. CHRISTY TURLINGTON BURNS: Here in Haiti many women have to walk an average of five miles just to receive any kind of maternal healthcare. During my last trip here we were bouncing along the road, and I thought "Hey, why don't we run this? Why don't we run or walk this? Let's see what this really feels like." At Every Mother Counts we run as a way of educating the public about how distance is a barrier for women to access quality maternity care.
Since the early 2000s RobecoSAM, a sustainable-investment specialist that assesses thousands of public companies on environmental and social criteria, has included measures of gender equality, such as equitable pay and talent management. After realising that in the decade to 2014 firms that scored well on these measures had better returns than those scoring poorly, it launched a gender-equality fund in 2015. Since then it has outperformed the global large-cap benchmark.
Merrill Lynch makes available products and services offered by Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Incorporated (MLPF&S), a registered broker-dealer and Member Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC), and other subsidiaries of Bank of America Corporation. Insurance and annuity products are offered through Merrill Lynch Life Agency Inc., a licensed insurance agency and wholly owned subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation.
i simply asked a question inviting others with more experiences to share theirs, and i must say, if one day i supervise this bunch, most will be fired. why? if bother to write, write something that is representative of you and your being. if that is the case, i must say, this IB field if represented here is really not that competitive in the positive sense. rather, quite trivial. no offense, but if one can read, one shall understand.
“I listen to 20 hours of customer calls every month,” says Murphy. “Young people call and they’re trying to figure out what to do with their the money.” The answer – she says – is basic asset allocation often accomplished by putting with the help of a target date fund. “When things get more complicated they probably will want a financial advisor. But [at the start] let’s demystify it and if there is a simple investment solution focus on that. Betterment Data Scientist Sam Swift agrees. “We encourage people to be as passive as possible,” he says.
After setting up this organization and being a profitable business which makes us sustainable we realized that we were still not changing some habits in these families. Yes, they had a steady income but if the kid said, "I want to drop out of school when I'm 12," the mother said okay, fine, you don't want to go to school? Don't go to school. Or they were having Coca-Cola for breakfast, not that I have anything against Coca-Cola, but if they're suffering from diabetes maybe it's better that they have oranges, that they have orange trees in the backyard. 

Managing your checking account, saving up for vacation, paying your bills on time and making sure your credit score is on point can be stressful. As for choosing the best financial app that works for you, you want to make sure that it’s not only aesthetically pleasing and provides content to help you grow your financial literacy, but most importantly that it  assists you in setting and achieving those financial goals of yours.
He also found that cortisol levels rise during a market crash, increasing risk aversion among traders and exacerbating the decline. Since women have significant lower testosterone levels, Coates argues that they are less prone to the irrational exuberance associated with stock market bubbles. While the study by Coats is focused on biological factors, it is not the only study to draw similar conclusions with regard to the investment behavior differences between men and women.
Wells Fargo Advisors is registered with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority but is not licensed or registered with any financial services regulatory authority outside of the U.S. Non-U.S. residents who maintain U.S.-based financial services accounts with Wells Fargo Advisors may not be afforded certain protections conferred by legislation and regulations in their country of residence in respect to any investments, investment transactions, or communications made with Wells Fargo Advisors.
11. Statistics Canada, “Occupation - National Occupational Classification (NOC) 2016 (693A), Highest Certificate, Diploma or Degree (15), Labour Force Status (3), Age (13A) and Sex (3) for the Labour Force Aged 15 Years and Over in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2016 Census - 25% Sample Data,” 2016 Census (2017).
However, although the industry is undergoing change, some of the misconceptions observed by the group when they joined are still around today. MUFG's Vanessa, responding to a university student who said a male investment banker told her ‘you need to be confident, assertive and masculine’ to do well in investment banking, said: ‘There is a preconception that investment banking is a male industry and you need male-type qualities to succeed.’
MS. VERVEER: Absolutely, and you did mention education and the fact that women are certainly in higher education exceeding all kinds of boundaries in graduate programs, and yet we don't see always, as you just said, the benefits of some of that in terms of breaking through and to some of the credible really challenging leadership jobs. What is the role of education in forging leadership? And how do you, so you've spent so much time overseeing the United States' education policies, now here in this state at the university level, what more should we be doing in terms of our education system to grow leadership, and particularly to grow women's leadership since we have such large numbers of women coming into the education sphere.

Don't put your investments on long-term autopilot. One of women's strengths as investors is that they are less tempted to buy and sell in the short term, based on classic research by Brad M. Barber and Terrance Odean at the University of California-Berkeley. But at least once a year, you need to become an active investor, checking your asset allocation as you age and your needs change. That means changing your asset allocation when it's required, or hiring an investment advisor or an online investment platform to do it for you. "This was my own mistake in 2008. ... I didn't have cash, and I was fairly close to retirement," said Hounsell.
Study after study has shown that women are less aggressive than men when it comes to investing. There are various arguments about why this is so. One theory is that that lower earnings from smaller paychecks result in a more conservative approach, as women try not lose what little they have. Another suggests that biology and the maternal instinct play a role, arguing that the protective instinct often credited to mothers makes them more reluctant to take risks.  Potential reasons aside, the more conservative approach to investing is generally associated with a variety of traits, including greater risk aversion, more concern about losses and less frequent trading. According to popular logic, these are all negative attributes to have when your objective is to make money in the financial markets. 
I am often amazed by how many intelligent, well-educated women have little knowledge and/or interest in investing and retirement planning. As a gender, we have to do something about this. Oh, that’s interesting, is a common response when women ask my friend, a female financial advisor, what she does for a living. And it is often delivered in a tone of voice that conveys just how interesting it is to have one’s teeth extracted or to find a piece of roadkill on one’s doorstep. The subtle cringe that shadows many women’s brows when a financial advisor mentions retirement planning or investment management has become a familiar sight.
She isn’t alone in putting financial planning on the back burner. According to the 2014 Northwestern Mutual Planning and Progress Study, the number one roadblock for people who think their planning could use improvement is a lack of time. Other studies show that many American women share this “head-in-the-sand” approach to long-term planning. But that strategy won’t work, according to Rebecca Bast, a financial advisor for Northwestern Mutual; not if women are to enjoy the financial security they deserve.
Unfortunately, according to a nationwide survey conducted by LearnVest and Chase Blueprint, only 48% of women and 56% of men have a 401(k) retirement account, and the percentage of people who have their own individual retirement account (IRA) is even lower: 40% for women and 48% for men. And these stats are just for retirement investing alone—even fewer people are doing any non-retirement investing.
Focusing on the goal is smart because it forces you to consider your personal needs rather than some arbitrary measure of success. “It’s not that women aren’t concerned about getting a great return,” says Zaneilia Harris, a certified financial planner and president of Harris & Harris Wealth Management, in Upper Marlboro, Md. “But they don’t care what their friends are doing; it’s all about their individual goals.”

And if you’re new to the table, bring a friend. Murphy has recently criss-crossed the country speaking to groups of women about their money. She notes that one thing that helps reluctant women get involved is to do it with a friend. Events where the invite has said “bring a friend” draw standing room-only crowds, she says. “Women love talking to each other about their experiences and once they get started they do very well. There’s an unwarranted confidence gap that doesn’t play out.”
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